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大学何位 大学何为

发布者:宣传部发布时间:2018-08-21浏览次数:1913

作者:张来斌《光明日报》( 2018年08月21日 13版)

【论教】  

编者按

  “一带一路”是促进相关各国互学互鉴、互利共赢的重大倡议,因其顺应时代潮流,符合各国人民利益而具有广阔前景。倡议提出五年来,相关国家在多领域的合作呈现良好态势,在经济、金融、外交、文化、教育、法律、科技等方面,产生了全方位影响。高等教育在“一带一路”建设中具有基础性、支撑性和引领性的重要作用,有为才能有位,大学何位?大学何为?本文把大学的发展置于“一带一路”的宏阔背景下去考量,提出如何在服务“一带一路”建设中提升高校自我发展能力和水平是国内高校亟须思考的重要命题,具有一定的启示意义。

1.新形势与新机遇

  xiandaigaodengjiaoyuyiqiannianlaidefazhan,jinglileyououzhouzhongxindaoyingguo、deguohemeiguozhongxindebianqian,lishijingyanbiaoming,shijieyiliudaxuewubushizaifuwuzijiguojiafazhanzhongchengzhangqilaide。“yidaiyilu”changyideshishi,weizhongguogaodengjiaoyuzairencaipeiyang、kejihezuohewenhuajiaoliudengfangmiandefazhantigonglexindeneizaidonglihewaizaijiyu,weizhongguogaoxiaozouxiangshijiewutaikaipilexindelujing。

  “yidaiyilu”jianshe,jichusheshi、nengyuankaifa、guojichannenghezuoxianxing。genjuguoxinbanfabuhuishangdexiaoxi,jiezhi6yuedi,woguoqiyezai“yidaiyilu”xiangguanguojiachengdanle3116getouzixiangmuhegongcheng。zheixielingyuduoweizibenhejishumijixingye,zijinhejichusheshi、gaoshuipingzhuanjiahegongchengshidoujuyouxiquexing,gaoxiaozuoweikejidiyishengchanli、chuangxindiyiqudongliherencaidiyiziyuandezhongyaojiehedian,zuoweijingjiheshehuifazhanzuizhongyaodeqianyinli,biranyaoshunyingzhuangbei、jishuhegongchengfuwu“zouchuqu”dehezuotisuqushi,shenducanyujiejuejishuherencaidexiquewenti。yigaoshuipingxingyetesegaoxiaoweidaibiaodebufengaoxiaoyinqiyuxingyedezhangqimiqielianxi,yijingzaifuwu“yidaiyilu”fazhanzhongxingchenglexianfayoushi。biru,zhongguoshiyoudaxue(beijing)yishiyouqiyehaiwaihezuoxiangmuweiyituo,tongguo“xiao—qi—xiao”lianhehe“xiao—xiao”lianhedengfangshiweiqiyehaiwaixiangmu“dingzhi”zhuanmenrencai,xingchengle“xuexiaozhudao、qiyequanchenghezuo、zhengfuzhichi、guowaigaoxiaodengduofangcanyu”derencaipeiyangxietongjizhi;hehaidaxuezuzhishishi“‘yidaiyilu’shuiligaocengcirencaijihua”weiyanxianguojiashusongshuilishuidianbentuhuarencai;zhongguodizhidaxue(wuhan)zonghekuangchan、haiyangjikongjiankexuedengxuekeyoushi,chengli“sichouzhiluxueyuan”deng。zheixiebanxueshijianweituijin“yidaiyilu”jianshetigonglezhilizhichi、kejizhichenghewenhualijie。

  dangqian,woguozhengzaikaiqigaodengjiaoyuqiangguodexinzhengcheng。“yidaiyilu”zuoweiquanfangwei、duocengci、litihuadekaifangtixi,jiangquanmiantishengwoguozongheguoliheguojiyingxiangli,daxueyaozaizheiyiweidadejiyuzhongzhaodaozishenfazhandeqihedianhezhelidian,jihuochuangxinfazhanqianneng,cujinduoyuanhua、duocengcidezhongguoteseshijieyiliudaxuekuaisujiankangchengzhang。

2.新问题与新挑战

  womenhaiyaoqingxingyishidao,“yidaiyilu”xiangguanguojiazaizongjiaowenhua、guojiazhidu、jingjijianshehefazhanmoshidengfangmiancunzaizhejudadechayi,miandui“yidaiyilu”jianshedexinrenwuhexinyaoqiu,daxuehaiyoubushaokunnanhetiaozhan。

  shouxianshishiyingdubugou。“yidaiyilu”dadatishenglewoguogaodengjiaoyuguojihuashuipingyijiqiyecanyuquanqiuhuachanyeliandegailv,mianduixinyilungongyegeminghechanyebiange,“zouchuqu”dezhongguoqiyewubuzaitishengchuangxinnengliheguojihuajingyingshuipingfangmianxiazhengongfu。gaoxiaozaishiyingbingyinlingxingyeqiyehaiwaifazhan、zhuanxingshengjifangmianhaiyousuozhihou。tuchubiaoxianzairencaipeiyangdeshiyingdubugou,queshaoyouzhenduixingderencaipeiyangmubiao、rencaipeiyanglinianyijikechengtixi;shiziduiwujiansheshiyingdubugou,queshaojianjuguojihuashiye、yuyannengli、xueshushuiping、gongchengjishunenglidegaoshuipingshizi;xuekezhuanyejiansheshiyingdubugou,yanxiangeguodeguobieyanjiu、zhengzhijingjizhuangkuang、falvfagui、xiaoyuzhongzhuanyejunqueshaoxiangyingdexuekeshezhiyijijiaoxueyanjiurenyuan;kexueyanjiushiyingdubugou,beidongcanyuqiyekejigongguanjiaoduo,zhudongfuwuduijieqiyechanyeshengjixuqiuhekaizhanqianzhanxingyanjiuyoudaijiaqiang。

  qicishixietongxingbugou。yishiwoguoyuxiangguanguojiagaodengjiaoyushizhixingrongheyuxietongbuzuqiebujunheng。zhangqiyilaijianghezuoduixiangsuodingzaifadaguojia、xianglinguojia,zaiyuzhongguohezuolunwenpaimingqian20weideguojiazhong,dabufenweioumeiridengfadaguojia,shi“yidaiyilu”xiangguanguojiadezhiyouxinjiapo、eluosi、yinduheyiselie4guo;shuangbianhezuoduo、sanbianshenzhiduoguohezuoshao,sanguojiyishangguojiahezuolunwenjinzhan7%;queshaoyouxiaodeduobianhezuojizhi,jinguanluxuchenglilexiangguanguojiayixiedaxuelianmeng,danlianmenghezuomuqianhaijinxianyukaizhanluntan、jubanfenghuidengxingshi,queshaofangxiangxingheshizhixingxietonghezuo,shangweinengluoshizailianhepeiyangrencai、guojikejigongguandengfangmian,gaodengjiaoyuziyuanzaixiangguanguojiashangweinengshixiangaoxiaopeizhiheliudong;ershicufangshihezuofangshi,xiangguangeguofazhanshuiping、wenhua、tesechanye、gaojiaoshuipinggebuxiangtong,queshaogenjugeguoyoushixuekelingyu、keyanbujuchayierkaizhandefencengci、jingzhunshihezuocelvehehezuomoshi;woguoxibei、dongbei、xinan、yanhaihegangaotaifenbieduiyingbutongdeyanxianguojia,jiyudiyuanyoushihehezuochuantong,gegequyudegaodengjiaoyuxingchenglebutongdeguojihuahezuofangxiang,dangqianshangweijinxingkexuefenleiguihua,yeshideyuxiangguanguojiagaoxiaojiandehezuochengxiandianzhuang、jiaochadexianzhuang,weixingchengxuekejiqunyoushihejiaodadeguojiyingxiangli;sanshiguoneigaodengjiaoyuziyuanbujubuheli。xibuweiyu“yidaiyilu”jianshedehexinqu,yongyoushifenfengfudenengyuanziyuanhekuangchanziyuandengzhanlvewuzi,yezaidiliweizhi、zongjiaowenhua、jingmaohezuodengfangmianyuxiangguanguojiayoutianranyoushi。danmuqianxibuyouzhigaodengjiaoyuziyuanfeichangkuifa,qibanxueshilishangbunengzairencai、keji、guojijiaoliudengfangmianyouxiaozhicheng“yidaiyilu”jianshexuqiu。guozhisuoxu,xiaozhisuozhong,jiangxibudeziyuanyoushizhuanhuaweifazhanyoushi,shixibugaoxiaoyiburongcidezerenheshiming。

  zaicishizhudaoxingbugou。xiangguangeguojiaoyugejutese、youjiaoqianghubuxing,haiyoujudahezuokongjianyoudaikaituo。zuoweichangyifaqiguo,“yidaiyilu”gouxiangdaobiwoguocongguojihezuocanyuzhexiangzhudaozhejiaosezhuanbian,congjianshejiaoyugongtongti、daozuzhifangshihejizhisheji,zaidaoshishibuzhouyujiaoliuxiangmu,douxuyaoyouzuzhidizhudaohexiediao。danzhangqiyilai“xifangyujing”xiadehezuomoshi、hezuojiegoujuyuzhuliu,guoneigaoxiaozaiguojigaodengjiaoyuhezuotixizhongchuyugensuizhe、canyuzhedeweizhi,duiyuzhudaoquyugaodengjiaoyuxietonghezuojingyanbuzu;keyanhezuofangmian,zaiduoguoguojihezuoxiangmu、gaozhiliangyanjiu、zhongdakexueqianyanyanjiuzhongwoguodaduochuyucongshudiwei;xueshuyingxianglifangmian,zuoweiguimozhanshijiegaodengjiaoyuzongguimoyichao20%degaodengjiaoyudiyidaguo,woguoguojixueshuhuayuquanyugaodengjiaoyushilicunzaicuowei,xuezhezaiguojixueshuzuzhizhongrenzhijiaoshao,zaizhongyaoguojixueshunianhuishangfashengjiaoshao,huayuquanbuzu;wenhuajiaoliufangmian,duiyutiquzuidagongyueshuningjuwenhuagongshi、dajianqingnianwenhuaduobianduihuayujiaowangpingtai、chuangxinwenhuachuanbomoshidengfangmiandezhudongxinghaibugou;zheixiezaiyidingchengdushangjunyingxianglegaodengjiaoyuchixushenhuahezuodejincheng。

3.新理念与新作为

  “yidaiyilu”duigaoxiao“shuangyiliu”jiansheyingxiangshenyuan,taweirencaipeiyangyukejichuangxintuokuanlexinlingyu,weirenliziyuankaifatuozhanlexintujing,weiwenhuajiaoliudajianlexinpingtai,weizhikujianshehezhiliziyuanhuijutigonglexinqudao。gaoxiaoliyingyixinlinian、xinzuowei,cujingaodengjiaoyuzaigengdafanwei、genggaoshuiping、gengshencengcidekaifanggongxiang,zaituijin“yidaiyilu”jianshezhongchuangxinchaoyue、shixiankuayueshifazhan。

  yishiyaotishengzhanwei,fuwuguojiafazhanzhanlvexuqiu。gaoxiaoyaozhudongdandang、jijixingdong,zaifuwurenleishehuijinbuheguojiafazhanzhongtixianjiazhidandang。yaocujinrencaipeiyangshengji,tongguochuangxinrencaipeiyangjizhi,jijitansuojiaoyukechengtixibiaozhunhuajianshe,zhubukaizhanbiaozhuntongyidepinggushouquanrenzheng,cujinkuaguokuajinghurenxuefenhebiyezheng,tansuozhiyejinengjiandinghezhiyezigezhengshuzhidu,shigeleirencaipingjiayouyizhibiaozhun;yaocujinshiziduiwushengji,tongguowanshanrencailiudongjizhi,weigaocengcishiziduiwuliudongtigongzhengcezhichi,bingjinyibuxinayoushijianjingyan、shuxixiangguanguojiaqingkuangdegongchengshijinrushiziduiwu,youhuarenliziyuanpeizhi,tongshijianshegaoduanzhiku,weizongjietuiguangjicengchuangxin、fengxianpinggudengzuohaozhishichubeiherencaichubei;yaocujinxuekezhuanyejiansheshengji,jujiaozhongdian,tuchuwentidaoxiang,zaijizhongyoushigongguchuantongxuekedetongshi,jiaqiangqingjienengyuan、dashuju、rengongzhinengdengxinxingjiaochaxueke;yaocujinkejifuwushengji,jinmitiehexingyeqiyezhuanxingshengjixuyao,yichanjiaoronghe、xiaoqihezuoweizhuashou,shishi“jiaoyuhezuokuangjia+rencaipeiyang+qiyexiangmuzhicheng”deyunzuomoshi,guantongjiaoyulian、chanyelian、rencailianhechuangxinlian。

  ershiyaojiaqiangtongchouxietong,xingchengfazhanheli。yaogoujianduobianhezuojizhi,jianshegaoduanduihuapingtaibingdingqizhaokaihuiyiqianghuaxinxijiaoliuhechangtong,jiaqiangduirencaixuqiu、kejichengguozhuanhuadengpingtaihexinxikujianshe,jianlixinxigongxiangjizhi,cujinxiangmu、rencaihezijindengduofangduijie;yaojiaqiangduoguoyouqishisanguojiyishangdeguojihezuo,tongguoyatouxingdengqudaoshelizhuanxiangzhongdakejigongguanxiangmuzijin,zuzhibingshishi“yidaiyilu”yujingxiadeguojikexuezhongdaxiangmu,biru“kuaguoyouqishusong”“kuahaidaqiao”dengfuzagongchenglingyu,geguokeyangongzuozhejunkeshenqing,zujianlianheyanjiutuandui,chengguoyongyuhuijigeguofazhan;yaokaizhanjingzhunshihezuo,conghongguanshangzhidingzhengcehezhidaoyijianjinxingyindao,guliguoneigaoxiaogezifahuiquyuyoushihexuekeyoushijiaqiangyuyanxianguojiahezuo,birujiaqiangwoguoxibeidiqugaoxiaoyuzhongya、xiya、zhongdongouguojialianxi,cujinxiangxikaifang;jiaqiangdongbeidiqugaoxiaoyueluosiyuandongdiquhezuodeyoushi,cujinxiangbeikaifang;jiaqiangxinandiqugaoxiaoyudongmengguojiadehezuo,dazaomianxiangdongnanya、nanyadezhongyaomenhu;jiaqiangdongnanyanhaidiqugaoxiaoyugangaotaigaoxiaodequanfangweihezuodengdeng。tongguojianlilianxijinmi、fengongxiezuo、gaoxiaopeihedeshizhixinghezuojizhi,xingchengjiqunyoushi,tishengguojiyingxiangli;yaotishengxibugaodengjiaoyushuiping,tuijinxibugaodengjiaoyushixiankuayueshifazhan。duanqineicaiquhuijigefangziyuanqianghuayuanjian、zhijieyinjinyouzhigaodengjiaoyuziyuandengfangshizuiweikuaijiekexing,biru,zhongguoshiyoudaxue(beijing)jiyuyukelamayizheizuo“shiyoucheng”dezhangqihezuo,zaikelamayishezhixinxiaoqu,jiaqiangxibujinquedegongchengyingyongxingrencaipeiyang。jinnian5yue,jiaoyubuqiantou14suobushugaoxiaozhichigongjianxiaoqu,tongguotuijinyuanchengzhihuijiaoyupingtaihelianheyanjiuyuan、jianligegaoxiaoshishengshehuishijianjidi、xuanpaiyouxiushizifuxiaoqucanyuyuanjiandenggongzuo,buduantishenggaodengjiaoyufuwudifangjingjishehuifazhandenengli,zheiyeshiyouhuagaodengjiaoyugongjicejiegouxinggaigedezhongyaotujing。

  sanshiyaowanchengjiaosezhuanbian,zhudaogoujiangaodengjiaoyuhezuoxingeju。yaodapoguanxingsiwei,shuliyongyudapojiutixi、jianlixintixidejinquxingxueshuqizhi,hongyangganyuchongjishijieyiliu、ganyuchaoyuekejilongduandelingpaoxingxueshujingshen;yaojijigoujianjiyu“yidaiyilu”jiazhitixidegaodengjiaoyupingjiabiaozhunhehezuojizhi,gongjian“yidaiyilu”jiaoyugongtongti,hujianxianjinjingyan,gongxiangyouzhiziyuan,gongtongtishengzhiliang;yaobagaoxiaoqingnianxuezijiandewenhuajiaoliuzuoweiminxinxiangtongdezhongyaozucheng,fengfuneirongzaiti,jianghaowenhuagushi,zengshewenhuajiaoliuxiangmu,shizunzhong、xinshang、gongxiangduoyanghuawenmingchengguochengweiqingnianjiazhiguandejichu;yaoyidiandaixian、youxiandaomian,chongfenwajuegeguojiaoyuziyuanhebijiaoyoushi,tuidongshishengjiaoliu、kechenggongjiangongxiang、lianhebanxuedenggegecengciduoyuanhuahezuojiaoliu;yaozhudongxiediao,qiantouzujianfenlingyu、duocengcidegaoxiaolianmenghuoxueshuzuzhi,qiantoujianlixietongyanjiushitihelianhepeiyangjidi,tuijinjiaoshihaiwaiyanxiu、peixunjidiyijixueshengkuajingshixi、shijianjidijianshe,chuangshetiaojianzhichijiaoshi、xueshengdaogeleiguojizuzhizhongrenzhi,zaifuwu“yidaiyilu”jianshezhongtishengbenling、zengzhangcaigan。

(作者:张来斌,系中国石油大学〔北京〕校长)